Vitiligo

Vitiligo

Vitiligo is an acquired, idiopathic progressive whitening of skin and hair caused by destruction of pigment of cells called melanocytes.

  • It affects 1-2% of population irrespective of age, sex and race. 50% begin before age 20.
  • There is no definite mode of inheritance. But genetic and environmental factors contribute to Vitiligo.
  • People from families increased prevalence of thyroid diseases, Dialoetes and other autoimmune diseases are at risk for Vitiligo. Many patients attribute vitiligo to precipitating factors such as physical trauma, illness, emotional stress etc.
  • The typical vitiligo macule is chalky white in color often showing depigmented hair Distribution.

Frequently it occurs on exposed areas dorsal surface of hands, elbows, feet legs, knees, neck and face or on the chest wall, lower back and areola.

  • Pre-tibial region plantar and planar region is most commonly affected in india. The distribution is more or less symmetrical.
  • Vitiligo vulgaris is the common type of vitiligo.
  • Bilateral, symmetrical mocules predominantly on the hands, feet generally fingers, toes is a subtype called acro-facial vitiligo.

Vitiligo again is of generalized vitiligo, focal vitiligo, Segmental vitiligo.

Generalised Vitiligo: It is wide spread of macules in a symmetrical array.

Focal Vitiligo: It is one or more macules on a single site or sometimes early evolutionary stage of other forms of diseases.

Segmental Vitiligo: It is uncommon is characterized by several macules on one side of the body.

The change in appearance caused by vitiligo can effect emotional and physiological well being.

It can be emotional stress if vitiligo will develops on visible areas, faces, hands, arms or feet.

  • There is a rapid advancement in the field of treatment for vtiligo.
  • Treatment depends on age of the patient extent t of the body involved pattern of vitiligo cosmetic disabilities.

Treatment modalities:

  1. Psoralens and UVA therapy (some hat older method of treatment)
  2. Narrow band UVB therapy (safe and effective method)
  3. Excimer laser
  4. Topical corticosteroids and oral steroids
  5. Placental extractpreparations
  6. Surgical Methods.